My curiosity about festivals started with a visit to Charleston's Spoleto Festival U.S.A. Festival in 1980, after reading a newspaper article about its effects on the city. That visit led to a visit to the 1980 Salzburg Festival. During the 1980s, I was able to return to Charleston's evolving festival and experience the power of that city's and its festival's artistic magic. Soon after I began graduate study at Emory University in January of 1985, Dr. Edna Bay, Associate Dean of Emory's Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts, suggested that in view of my experience in Chattanooga, I might consider the study of festivals. In the summer of 1985, while a student in Emory's British Studies program at University College, Oxford, I visited several British festivals and began the formal research for this study. In 1986 I visited Chicago's Ravinia Festival and other Chicago urban festivals. In 1987 I visited the festivals of Stratford, Ontario; the Chautauqua Institution at Jamestown, New York, and Artpark, at Niagara Falls, New York. I attended all but one of Chattanooga's Riverbend festivals. Without the assistance of the leaders and busy staff members of these festivals, this work could not have been written. I thank them all for giving me precious moments during their busiest time for answering questions, for admission to festival events, and for their encouragement in exploring the art of the festival.
A 1985 Emory University seminar, "Toward an Archeology of Modern European Theater," offered by Professor Timothy J. Reiss (now chair of comparative literature at New York University), provided my first exposure to various semiotic and drama theories that offered a conceptual language suitable for beginning an analysis of festivals. Professor Reiss' tolerance for my limited understanding of these vast fields of knowledge--and his endless patience with my curiosity about semiotics as a possible extension of my background in communication studies--provided the personal and scholarly leadership needed to pursue the topic of festivals to the end of the beginning that this dissertation represents. To him and the other two readers of this work, Robert Detweiler of Emory University's Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts, and Robert Segrest of the University of Florida's Department of Architecture, I wish to express my appreciation for their assistance, patience, and understanding during the slow genesis and development of these ideas. The counsel of Professor Monica Rector, a good friend and colleague in semiotics, and was extremely helpful in the early formulation of the study and in suggesting an earlier title for it, "Writing Festival; Writing on Festival," which suggests the postmodernist character of a larger work yet to be written.
I especially thank my late parents, Doris and Neal Hetzler, for making it possible for me to take time away from business and farm activities for this research.
Several business associates, particularly William Krause, David N. Brooks, Jr., and Grant Tuttle of McKee Baking Company's purchasing department, were especially tolerant of those occasions when I was not present to conduct business as usual; their support generated the income without which this work would not have been written.
The editorial assistance and encouragement of Dorothy DuBose in particular as well as Tanya Augsburg and Charles Sills of Emory University's Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts in reviewing both the substance and style of drafts of this work was much needed and appreciated.
Finally, I wish to acknowledge the stimulation, help, and encouragement of professors, colleagues, festival lovers, musicians, friends, and relatives who contributed directly or indirectly to this work. They include: Edna G. Bay, Fred Berringer, Paul Bouissac, Daniel Bowles, Reneé Brachfeld, John Bugge, David Darling, Catherine Eagar, Dorinda Evans, Elizabeth Farr, John Farr, Jean-Claude Gardin, Sorrel Hays, Joan E. Hetzler, Morris C. Hetzler, William R. Hetzler, Lalah, Hightower, Bernard Holland, Deanne Irvine, J. Nelson Irvine, Art Jennings, J. Kenneth Kansas, Gianni Longo, John T. Lupton, Vernon Magnuson, Gian Carlo Menotti, Linda Metcalf, Denis Mickiewicz, Carol Miles, Sharon Mills, Deaderick Montague, Will Montague, Jack Murrah, Charlotte Muse, Fred Park, W. A. Bryan Patten, Z. Cartter Patten, Robert A. Paul, David Rawle, Monica Rector, Nigel Redden, Joseph P. Riley, Jr., Arthur Rivituso, Eloise Robbins, Frank M. (Mickey) Robbins, III, Dalton Roberts, Sally Robinson, Samuel Robinson, Charles A. Rose, Thomas Sebeok, Toby Simon, Bruce Storey, Albert J. Sullivan, Allen Tullos, Charles S. Wadsworth, and Dana F. White. (New People)
Special appreciation is due to Dr. Theodore S. Stern, Spoleto Festival U.S.A.'s first board chairman, for granting permission to reproduce the transcript of his complete story of the founding of Charleston's festival, and also to him and to Mayor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., for hosting the Chattanooga Friends of the Festival group's visit to Spoleto Festival U.S.A. in 1981.
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Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Bibliography After Thoughts--Summer 2485
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